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The Eucharist Or Lord's Supper





We are informed by the Matthew narrator that when Jesus was eating his
last supper with the disciples,

"He took bread and blessed it, and brake it, and gave it to
the disciples, and said, Take, eat, this is my body. And he
took the cup, and gave thanks, and gave it to them, saying,
drink ye all of it, for this is my blood of the New
Testament, which is shed for many for the remission of
sins."[305:1]

According to Christian belief, Jesus instituted this
"Sacrament"[305:2]--as it is called--and it was observed by the
primitive Christians, as he had enjoined them; but we shall find that
this breaking of bread, and drinking of wine,--supposed to be the body
and blood of a god[305:3]--is simply another piece of Paganism imbibed
by the Christians.

The Eucharist was instituted many hundreds of years before the time
assigned for the birth of Christ Jesus. Cicero, the greatest orator of
Rome, and one of the most illustrious of her statesmen, born in the year
106 B. C., mentions it in his works, and wonders at the strangeness of
the rite. "How can a man be so stupid," says he, "as to imagine that
which he eats to be a God?" There had been an esoteric meaning attached
to it from the first establishment of the mysteries among the Pagans,
and the Eucharistia is one of the oldest rites of antiquity.

The adherents of the Grand Lama in Thibet and Tartary offer to their god
a sacrament of bread and wine.[305:4]

P. Andrada La Crozius, a French missionary, and one of the first
Christians who went to Nepaul and Thibet, says in his "History of
India:"

"Their Grand Lama celebrates a species of sacrifice with
bread and wine, in which, after taking a small quantity
himself, he distributes the rest among the Lamas present at
this ceremony."[306:1]

In certain rites both in the Indian and the Parsee religions, the
devotees drink the juice of the Soma, or Haoma plant. They consider it
a god as well as a plant, just as the wine of the Christian sacrament
is considered both the juice of the grape, and the blood of the
Redeemer.[306:2] Says Mr. Baring-Gould:

"Among the ancient Hindoos, Soma was a chief deity; he is
called 'the Giver of Life and of health,' the 'Protector,' he
who is 'the Guide to Immortality.' He became incarnate among
men, was taken by them and slain, and brayed in a mortar. But
he rose in flame to heaven, to be the 'Benefactor of the
World,' and the 'Mediator between God and Man.' Through
communion with him in his sacrifice, man, (who partook of this
god), has an assurance of immortality, for by that sacrament
he obtains union with his divinity."[306:3]

The ancient Egyptians--as we have seen--annually celebrated the
Resurrection of their God and Saviour Osiris, at which time they
commemorated his death by the Eucharist, eating the sacred cake, or
wafer, after it had been consecrated by the priest, and become
veritable flesh of his flesh.[306:4] The bread, after sacerdotal rites,
became mystically the body of Osiris, and, in such a manner, they ate
their god.[306:5] Bread and wine were brought to the temples by the
worshipers, as offerings.[306:6]

The Therapeutes or Essenes, whom we believe to be of Buddhist
origin, and who lived in large numbers in Egypt, also had the ceremony
of the sacrament among them.[306:7] Most of them, however, being
temperate, substituted water for wine, while others drank a mixture of
water and wine.

Pythagoras, the celebrated Grecian philosopher, who was born about the
year 570 B. C., performed this ceremony of the sacrament.[306:8] He is
supposed to have visited Egypt, and there availed himself of all such
mysterious lore as the priests could be induced to impart. He and his
followers practiced asceticism, and peculiarities of diet and clothing,
similar to the Essenes, which has led some scholars to believe that he
instituted the order, but this is evidently not the case.

The Kenite "King of Righteousness," Melchizedek, "a priest of the Most
High God," brought out BREAD and WINE as a sign or symbol of
worship; as the mystic elements of Divine presence. In the visible
symbol of bread and wine they worshiped the invisible presence of the
Creator of heaven and earth.[307:1]

To account for this, Christian divines have been much puzzled. The Rev.
Dr. Milner says, in speaking of this passage:

"It was in offering up a sacrifice of bread and wine, instead
of slaughtered animals, that Melchizedek's sacrifice differed
from the generality of those in the old law, and that he
prefigured the sacrifice which Christ was to institute in
the new law from the same elements. No other sense than this
can be elicited from the Scripture as to this matter; and
accordingly the holy fathers unanimously adhere to this
meaning."[307:2]

This style of reasoning is in accord with the TYPE theory concerning the
Virgin-born, Crucified and Resurrected Saviours, but it is not
altogether satisfactory. If it had been said that the religion of
Melchizedek, and the religion of the Persians, were the same, there
would be no difficulty in explaining the passage.

Not only were bread and wine brought forth by Melchizedek when he
blessed Abraham, but it was offered to God and eaten before him by
Jethro and the elders of Israel, and some, at least, of the mourning
Israelites broke bread and drank "the cup of consolation," in
remembrance of the departed, "to comfort them for the dead."[307:3]

It is in the ancient religion of Persia--the religion of Mithra, the
Mediator, the Redeemer and Saviour--that we find the nearest resemblance
to the sacrament of the Christians, and from which it was evidently
borrowed. Those who were initiated into the mysteries of Mithra, or
became members, took the sacrament of bread and wine.[307:4]

M. Renan, speaking of Mithraicism, says:

"It had its mysterious meetings: its chapels, which bore a
strong resemblance to little churches. It forged a very
lasting bond of brotherhood between its initiates: it had a
Eucharist, a Supper so like the Christian Mysteries, that
good Justin Martyr, the Apologist, can find only one
explanation of the apparent identity, namely, that Satan, in
order to deceive the human race, determined to imitate the
Christian ceremonies, and so stole them."[307:5]

The words of St. Justin, wherein he alludes to this ceremony, are as
follows:

"The apostles, in the commentaries written by themselves,
which we call Gospels, have delivered down to us how that
Jesus thus commanded them: He having taken bread, after he
had given thanks,[308:1] said, Do this in commemoration of
me; this is my body. And having taken a cup, and returned
thanks, he said: This is my blood, and delivered it to them
alone. Which thing indeed the evil spirits have taught to be
done out of mimicry in the Mysteries and Initiatory rites of
Mithra.

"For you either know, or can know, that bread and a cup of
water (or wine) are given out, with certain incantations, in
the consecration of the person who is being initiated in the
Mysteries of Mithra."[308:2]

This food they called the Eucharist, of which no one was allowed to
partake but the persons who believed that the things they taught were
true, and who had been washed with the washing that is for the remission
of sin.[308:3] Tertullian, who flourished from 193 to 220 A. D., also
speaks of the Mithraic devotees celebrating the Eucharist.[308:4]

The Eucharist of the Lord and Saviour, as the Magi called Mithra, the
second person in their Trinity, or their Eucharistic sacrifice, was
always made exactly and in every respect the same as that of the
orthodox Christians, for both sometimes used water instead of wine, or a
mixture of the two.[308:5]

The Christian Fathers often liken their rites to those of the Therapeuts
(Essenes) and worshipers of Mithra. Here is Justin Martyr's account of
Christian initiation:

"But we, after we have thus washed him who has been convinced
and assented to our teachings, bring him to the place where
those who are called brethren are assembled, in order that
we may offer hearty prayers in common for ourselves and the
illuminated person. Having ended our prayers, we salute one
another with a kiss. There is then brought to the president of
the brethren bread and a cup of wine mixed with water. When
the president has given thanks, and all the people have
expressed their assent, those that are called by us deacons
give to each of those present to partake of the bread and wine
mixed with water."[308:6]

In the service of Edward the Sixth of England, water is directed to be
mixed with the wine.[309:1] This is a union of the two; not a half
measure, but a double one. If it be correct to take it with wine, then
they were right; if with water, they still were right; as they took
both, they could not be wrong.

The bread, used in these Pagan Mysteries, was carried in baskets,
which practice was also adopted by the Christians. St. Jerome, speaking
of it, says:

"Nothing can be richer than one who carries the body of
Christ (viz.: the bread) in a basket made of twigs."[309:2]

The Persian Magi introduced the worship of Mithra into Rome, and his
mysteries were solemnized in a cave. In the process of initiation
there, candidates were also administered the sacrament of bread and
wine, and were marked on the forehead with the sign of the
cross.[309:3]

The ancient Greeks also had their "Mysteries," wherein they
celebrated the sacrament of the Lord's Supper. The Rev. Robert Taylor,
speaking of this, says:

"The Eleusinian Mysteries, or, Sacrament of the Lord's
Supper, was the most august of all the Pagan ceremonies
celebrated, more especially by the Athenians, every fifth
year,[309:4] in honor of Ceres, the goddess of corn, who, in
allegorical language, had given us her flesh to eat; as
Bacchus, the god of wine, in like sense, had given us his
blood to drink. . . .

"From these ceremonies is derived the very name attached to
our Christian sacrament of the Lord's Supper,--'those holy
Mysteries;'--and not one or two, but absolutely all and every
one of the observances used in our Christian solemnity. Very
many of our forms of expression in that solemnity are
precisely the same as those that appertained to the Pagan
rite."[309:5]

Prodicus (a Greek sophist of the 5th century B. C.) says that, the
ancients worshiped bread as Demeter (Ceres) and wine as Dionysos
(Bacchus);[309:6] therefore, when they ate the bread, and drank the
wine, after it had been consecrated, they were doing as the Romanists
claim to do at the present day, i. e., eating the flesh and drinking
the blood of their god.[309:7]

Mosheim, the celebrated ecclesiastical historian, acknowledges that:

"The profound respect that was paid to the Greek and Roman

Mysteries, and the extraordinary sanctity that was
attributed to them, induced the Christians of the second
century, to give their religion a mystic air, in order to
put it upon an equal footing in point of dignity, with that of
the Pagans. For this purpose they gave the name of Mysteries
to the institutions of the Gospels, and decorated particularly
the 'Holy Sacrament' with that title; they used the very terms
employed in the Heathen Mysteries, and adopted some of the
rites and ceremonies of which those renowned mysteries
consisted. This imitation began in the eastern provinces; but,
after the time of Adrian, who first introduced the mysteries
among the Latins, it was followed by the Christians who dwelt
in the western part of the empire. A great part, therefore, of
the service of the Church in this--the second--century, had a
certain air of the Heathen Mysteries, and resembled them
considerably in many particulars."[310:1]


Eleusinian Mysteries and Christian Sacraments Compared.

1. "But as the benefit of Initiation was great, such as were convicted
of witchcraft, murder, even though unintentional, or any other heinous
crimes, were debarred from those mysteries."[310:2]

1. "For as the benefit is great, if, with a true penitent
heart and lively faith, we receive that holy sacrament, &c.,
if any be an open and notorious evil-liver, or hath done wrong
to his neighbor, &c., that he presume not to come to the
Lord's table."[310:3]

2. "At their entrance, purifying themselves, by washing their hands in
holy water, they were at the same time admonished to present
themselves with pure minds, without which the external cleanness of the
body would by no means be accepted."[310:4]

2. See the fonts of holy water at the entrance of every
Catholic chapel in Christendom for the same purpose.

"Let us draw near with a true heart in full assurance of
faith, having our hearts sprinkled from an evil conscience,
and our bodies washed with pure water."[310:5]

3. "The priests who officiated in these sacred solemnities, were called
Hierophants, or 'revealers of holy things.'"[310:6]

3. The priests who officiate at these Christian solemnities
are supposed to be 'revealers of holy things.'

4. The Pagan Priest dismissed their congregation with these words:

"The Lord be with you."[310:7]

4. The Christian priests dismiss their congregation with these
words:

"The Lord be with you."

These Eleusinian Mysteries were accompanied with various rites,
expressive of the purity and self-denial of the worshiper, and were
therefore considered to be an expiation of past sins, and to place the
initiated under the special protection of the awful and potent goddess
who presided over them.[310:8]

These mysteries were, as we have said, also celebrated in honor of
Bacchus as well as Ceres. A consecrated cup of wine was handed
around after supper, called the "Cup of the Agathodaemon"--the Good
Divinity.[311:1] Throughout the whole ceremony, the name of the Lord
was many times repeated, and his brightness or glory not only exhibited
to the eye by the rays which surrounded his name (or his monogram, I. H.
S.), but was made the peculiar theme or subject of their triumphant
exultation.[311:2]

The mystical wine and bread were used during the Mysteries of Adonis,
the Lord and Saviour.[311:3] In fact, the communion of bread and wine
was used in the worship of nearly every important deity.[311:4]

The rites of Bacchus were celebrated in the British Islands in heathen
times,[311:5] and so were those of Mithra, which were spread over Gaul
and Great Britain.[311:6] We therefore find that the ancient Druids
offered the sacrament of bread and wine, during which ceremony they were
dressed in white robes,[311:7] just as the Egyptian priests of Isis were
in the habit of dressing, and as the priests of many Christian sects
dress at the present day.

Among some negro tribes in Africa there is a belief that "on eating and
drinking consecrated food they eat and drink the god himself."[311:8]

The ancient Mexicans celebrated the mysterious sacrament of the
Eucharist, called the "most holy supper," during which they ate the
flesh of their god. The bread used at their Eucharist was made of corn
meal, which they mixed with blood, instead of wine. This was
consecrated by the priest, and given to the people, who ate it with
humility and penitence, as the flesh of their god.[311:9]

Lord Kingsborough, in his "Mexican Antiquities," speaks of the ancient
Mexicans as performing this sacrament; when they made a cake, which they
called Tzoalia. The high priest blessed it in his manner, after which
he broke it into pieces, and put it into certain very clean vessels. He
then took a thorn of maguery, which resembles a thick needle, with
which he took up with the utmost reverence single morsels, which he put
into the mouth of each individual, after the manner of a
communion.[311:10]

The writer of the "Explanation of Plates of the Codex
Vaticanus,"--which are copies of Mexican hieroglyphics--says:

"I am disposed to believe that these poor people have had the
knowledge of our mode of communion, or of the annunciation of
the gospel; or perhaps the devil, most envious of the honor
of God, may have led them into this superstition, in order
that by this ceremony he might be adored and served as Christ
our Lord."[312:1]

The Rev. Father Acosta says:

"That which is most admirable in the hatred and presumption of
Satan is, that he hath not only counterfeited in idolatry and
sacrifice, but also in certain ceremonies, our Sacraments,
which Jesus Christ our Lord hath instituted and the holy
Church doth use, having especially pretended to imitate in
some sort the Sacrament of the Communion, which is the most
high and divine of all others."

He then relates how the Mexicans and Peruvians, in certain
ceremonies, ate the flesh of their god, and called certain morsels of
paste, "the flesh and bones of Vitzilipuzlti."

"After putting themselves in order about these morsels and
pieces of paste, they used certain ceremonies with singing, by
means whereof they (the pieces of paste) were blessed and
consecrated for the flesh and bones of this idol."[312:2]

These facts show that the Eucharist is another piece of Paganism
adopted by the Christians. The story of Jesus and his disciples being at
supper, where the Master did break bread, may be true, but the statement
that he said, "Do this in remembrance of me,"--"this is my body," and
"this is my blood," was undoubtedly invented to give authority to the
mystic ceremony, which had been borrowed from Paganism.

Why should they do this in remembrance of Jesus? Provided he took this
supper with his disciples--which the John narrator denies[312:3]--he
did not do anything on that occasion new or unusual among Jews. To
pronounce the benediction, break the bread, and distribute pieces
thereof to the persons at table, was, and is now, a common usage of the
Hebrews. Jesus could not have commanded born Jews to do in remembrance
of him what they already practiced, and what every religious Jew does to
this day. The whole story is evidently a myth, as a perusal of it with
the eye of a critic clearly demonstrates.

The Mark narrator informs us that Jesus sent two of his disciples to
the city, and told them this:

"Go ye into the city, and there shall meet you a man bearing a
pitcher of water; follow him. And wheresoever he shall go in,
say ye to the goodman of the house, The Master saith, Where
is the guest-chamber, where I shall eat the passover with my
disciples? And he will show you a large upper room furnished
and prepared: there make ready for us. And his disciples went
forth, and came into the city, and found as he had said unto
them: and they made ready the passover."[313:1]

The story of the passover or the last supper, seems to be introduced in
this unusual manner to make it manifest that a divine power is
interested in, and conducting the whole affair, parallels of which we
find in the story of Elieser and Rebecca, where Rebecca is to identify
herself in a manner pre-arranged by Elieser with God;[313:2] and also in
the story of Elijah and the widow of Zarephath, where by God's
directions a journey is made, and the widow is found.[313:3]

It suggests itself to our mind that this style of connecting a
supernatural interest with human affairs was not entirely original with
the Mark narrator. In this connection it is interesting to note that a
man in Jerusalem should have had an unoccupied and properly furnished
room just at that time, when two millions of pilgrims sojourned in and
around the city. The man, it appears, was not distinguished either for
wealth or piety, for his name is not mentioned; he was not present at
the supper, and no further reference is made to him. It appears rather
that the Mark narrator imagined an ordinary man who had a furnished room
to let for such purposes, and would imply that Jesus knew it
prophetically. He had only to pass in his mind from Elijah to his
disciple Elisha, for whom the great woman of Shunem had so richly
furnished an upper chamber, to find a like instance.[313:4] Why should
not somebody have furnished also an upper chamber for the Messiah?

The Matthew narrator's account is free from these embellishments, and
simply runs thus: Jesus said to some of his disciples--the number is not
given--

"Go into the city to such a man, and say unto him, The Master
saith, My time is at hand; I will keep the passover at thy
house with my disciples. And the disciples did as Jesus had
appointed them; and they made ready the passover."[313:5]

In this account, no pitcher, no water, no prophecy is mentioned.[313:6]

It was many centuries before the genuine heathen doctrine of
Transubstantiation--a change of the elements of the Eucharist into
the real body and blood of Christ Jesus--became a tenet of the
Christian faith. This greatest of mysteries was developed gradually. As
early as the second century, however, the seeds were planted, when we
find Ignatius, Justin Martyr, and Irenaeus advancing the opinion, that
the mere bread and wine became, in the Eucharist, something
higher--the earthly, something heavenly--without, however, ceasing to
be bread and wine. Though these views were opposed by some eminent
individual Christian teachers, yet both among the people and in the
ritual of the Church, the miraculous or supernatural view of the Lord's
Supper gained ground. After the third century the office of presenting
the bread and wine came to be confined to the ministers or priests.
This practice arose from, and in turn strengthened, the notion which was
gaining ground, that in this act of presentation by the priest, a
sacrifice, similar to that once offered up in the death of Christ Jesus,
though bloodless, was ever anew presented to God. This still deepened
the feeling of mysterious significance and importance with which the
rite of the Lord's Supper was viewed, and led to that gradually
increasing splendor of celebration which took the form of the Mass. As
in Christ Jesus two distinct natures, the divine and the human, were
wonderfully combined, so in the Eucharist there was a corresponding
union of the earthly and the heavenly.

For a long time there was no formal declaration of the mind of the
Church on the real presence of Christ Jesus in the Eucharist. At
length a discussion on the point was raised, and the most
distinguished men of the time took part in it. One party maintained that
"the bread and wine are, in the act of consecration, transformed by the
omnipotence of God into the very body of Christ which was once born of

Mary, nailed to the cross, and raised from the dead." According to this
conception, nothing remains of the bread and wine but the outward form,
the taste and the smell; while the other party would only allow that
there is some change in the bread and wine themselves, but granted
that an actual transformation of their power and efficacy takes place.

The greater accordance of the first view with the credulity of the age,
its love for the wonderful and magical, the interest of the priesthood
to add lustre, in accordance with the heathens, to a rite which enhanced
their own office, resulted in the doctrine of Transubstantiation being
declared an article of faith of the Christian Church.

Transubstantiation, the invisible change of the bread and wine into the
body and blood of Christ, is a tenet that may defy the powers of
argument and pleasantry; but instead of consulting the evidence of their
senses, of their sight, their feeling, and their taste, the first
Protestants were entangled in their own scruples, and awed by the
reputed words of Jesus in the institution of the sacrament. Luther
maintained a corporeal, and Calvin a real presence of Christ in the
Eucharist; and the opinion of Zuinglius, that it is no more than a
spiritual communion, a simple memorial, has slowly prevailed in the
reformed churches.[315:1]

Under Edward VI. the reformation was more bold and perfect, but in the
fundamental articles of the Church of England, a strong and explicit
declaration against the real presence was obliterated in the original
copy, to please the people, or the Lutherans, or Queen Elizabeth. At the
present day, the Greek and Roman Catholics alone hold to the original
doctrine of the real presence.

Of all the religious observances among heathens, Jews, or Turks, none
has been the cause of more hatred, persecution, outrage, and bloodshed,
than the Eucharist. Christians persecuted one another like relentless
foes, and thousands of Jews were slaughtered on account of the Eucharist
and the Host.


FOOTNOTES:

[305:1] Matt. xxvi. 26. See also, Mark, xiv. 22.

[305:2] At the heading of the chapters named in the above note may be
seen the words: "Jesus keepeth the Passover (and) instituteth the
Lord's Supper."

[305:3] According to the Roman Christians, the Eucharist is the natural
body and blood of Christ Jesus vere et realiter, but the Protestant
sophistically explains away these two plain words verily and indeed,
and by the grossest abuse of language, makes them to mean spiritually
by grace and efficacy. "In the sacrament of the altar," says the
Protestant divine, "is the natural body and blood of Christ vere et
realiter, verily and indeed, if you take these terms for spiritually
by grace and efficacy; but if you mean really and indeed, so that
thereby you would include a lively and movable body under the form of
bread and wine, then in that sense it is not Christ's body in the
sacrament really and indeed."

[305:4] See Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 203, and Anacalypsis, i.
232.

[306:1] "Leur grand Lama celebre une espece de sacrifice avec du pain et
du vin dont il prend une petite quantite, et distribue le reste aux
Lamas presens a cette ceremonie." (Quoted in Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p.
118.)

[306:2] Viscount Amberly's Analysis, p. 46.

[306:3] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 401.

[306:4] See Bonwick's Egyptian Belief, p. 163.

[306:5] See Ibid. p. 417.

[306:6] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 179.

[306:7] See Bunsen's Keys of St. Peter, p. 199; Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p.
60, and Lillie's Buddhism, p. 136.

[306:8] See Higgins: Anacalypsis, vol. ii. p. 60.

[307:1] See Bunsen's Keys of St. Peter, p. 55, and Genesis, xiv. 18, 19.

[307:2] St. Jerome says: "Melchizedek in typo Christi panem et vinum
obtulit: et mysterium Christianum in Salvatoris sanguine et corpore
dedicavit."

[307:3] See Bunsen's Angel-Messiah, p. 227.

[307:4] See King's Gnostics and their Remains, p. xxv., and Higgins'
Anacalypsis, vol. ii. pp. 58, 59.

[307:5] Renan's Hibbert Lectures, p. 35.

[308:1] In the words of Mr. King: "This expression shows that the notion
of blessing or consecrating the elements was as yet unknown to the
Christians."

[308:2] Apol. 1. ch. lxvi.

[308:3] Ibid.

[308:4] De Praescriptione Haereticorum, ch. xl. Tertullian explains this
conformity between Christianity and Paganism, by asserting that the
devil copied the Christian mysteries.

[308:5] "De Tinctione, de oblatione panis, et de imagine resurrectionis,
videatur doctiss, de la Cerda ad ea Tertulliani loca ubi de hiscerebus
agitur. Gentiles citra Christum, talia celebradant Mithriaca quae
videbantur cum doctrina eucharistae et resurrectionis et aliis
ritibus Christianis convenire, quae fecerunt ex industria ad imitationem
Christianismi: unde Tertulliani et Patres aiunt eos talia fecisse, duce
diabolo, quo vult esse simia Christi, &c. Volunt itaque eos res suas ita
comparasse, ut Mithrae mysteria essent eucharistiae Christianae imago.
Sic Just. Martyr (p. 98), et Tertullianus et Chrysostomus. In suis etiam
sacris habebant Mithriaci lavacra (quasi regenerationis) in quibus
tingit et ipse (sc. sacerdos) quosdam utique credentes et fideles suos,
et expiatoria delictorum de lavacro repromittit et sic adhuc initiat
Mithrae." (Hyde: De Relig. Vet. Persian, p. 113.)

[308:6] Justin: 1st Apol., ch. lvi.

[309:1] Dr. Grabes' Notes on Irenaeus, lib. v. c. 2, in Anac., vol. i. p.
60.

[309:2] Quoted in Monumental Christianity, p. 370.

[309:3] See Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 369.

"The Divine Presence called his angel of mercy and said unto him: 'Go
through the midst of the city, through the midst of Jerusalem, and set
the mark of Tau ({~GREEK CAPITAL LETTER TAU~}, the headless cross) upon the foreheads of the men
that sigh and that cry for all the abominations that are done in the
midst thereof.'" Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, p. 305.

[309:4] They were celebrated every fifth year at Eleusis, a town of
Attica, from whence their name.

[309:5] Taylor's Diegesis, p. 212.

[309:6] Mueller: Origin of Religion, p. 181.

[309:7] "In the Bacchic Mysteries a consecrated cup (of wine) was
handed around after supper, called the cup of the Agathodaemon."
(Cousin: Lec. on Modn. Phil. Quoted in Isis Unveiled, ii. 513. See also,
Dunlap's Spirit Hist., p. 217.)

[310:1] Eccl. Hist. cent. ii. pt. 2, sec. v.

[310:2] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 282.

[310:3] Episcopal Communion Service.

[310:4] Bell's Pantheon, vol. i. p. 282.

[310:5] Hebrews, x. 22.

[310:6] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 213.

[310:7] See Ibid.

[310:8] Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 471.

[311:1] See Dunlap's Spirit Hist., p. 217, and Isis Unveiled, vol. ii.
p. 513.

[311:2] See Taylor's Diegesis, p. 214.

[311:3] See Isis Unveiled, vol. ii. p. 139.

[311:4] See Ibid. p. 513.

[311:5] See Myths of the British Druids, p. 89.

[311:6] See Dupuis: Origin of Relig. Belief, p. 238.

[311:7] See Myths of the British Druids, p. 280, and Prog. Relig. Ideas,
vol. i. p. 376.

[311:8] Herbert Spencer: Principles of Sociology, vol. i. p. 299.

[311:9] See Monumental Christianity, pp. 390 and 393.

[311:10] Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 220.

[312:1] Quoted In Mexican Antiquities, vol. vi. p. 221.

[312:2] Acosta: Hist. Indies, vol. ii. chs. xiii. and xiv.

[312:3] According to the "John" narrator, Jesus ate no Paschal meal,
but was captured the evening before Passover, and was crucified before
the feast opened. According to the Synoptics, Jesus partook of the
Paschal supper, was captured the first night of the feast, and executed
on the first day thereof, which was on a Friday. If the John
narrator's account is true, that of the Synoptics is not, or vice
versa.

[313:1] Mark, xiv. 13-16.

[313:2] Gen. xxiv.

[313:3] I. Kings, xvii. 8.

[313:4] II. Kings, iv. 8.

[313:5] Matt. xxvi. 18, 19.

[313:6] For further observations on this subject, see Dr. Isaac M.
Wise's "Martyrdom of Jesus of Nazareth," a valuable little work,
published at the office of the American Israelite, Cincinnati, Ohio.

[315:1] See Gibbon's Rome, vol. v. pp. 399, 400. Calvin, after quoting
Matt. xxvi. 26, 27, says: "There is no doubt that as soon as these
words are added to the bread and the wine, the bread and the wine become
the true body and the true blood of Christ, so that the substance of
bread and wine is transmuted into the true body and blood of Christ.
He who denies this calls the omnipotence of Christ in question, and
charges Christ himself with foolishness." (Calvin's Tracts, p. 214.
Translated by Henry Beveridge, Edinburgh, 1851.) In other parts of his
writings, Calvin seems to contradict this statement, and speaks of the
bread and wine in the Eucharist as being symbolical. Gibbon evidently
refers to the passage quoted above.





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