Jacob's Vision Of The Ladder





In the 28th chapter of Genesis, we are told that Isaac, after blessing

his son Jacob, sent him to Padan-aram, to take a daughter of Laban's

(his mother's brother) to wife. Jacob, obeying his father, "went out

from Beer-sheba (where he dwelt), and went towards Haran. And he lighted

upon a certain place, and tarried there all night, because the sun was

set. And he took of the stones of the place, and put them for his

pillow, and lay down in that place to sleep. And he dreamed, and behold,

a ladder set upon the earth, and the top of it reached to heaven. And

he beheld the angels of God ascending and descending on it. And,

behold, the Lord stood above it, and said: 'I am the Lord God of Abraham

thy father, and the God of Isaac, the land whereon thou liest, to thee

will I give it, and to thy seed.' . . . And Jacob awoke out of his

sleep, and he said: 'Surely the Lord is in this place, and I know it

not.' And he was afraid, and said: 'How dreadful is this place, this

is none other than the house of God, and this is the gate of Heaven.'

And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone that he had

put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar, and poured oil upon the

top of it. And he called the name of that place Beth-el."



The doctrine of Metempsychosis has evidently something to do with this

legend. It means, in the theological acceptation of the term, the

supposed transition of the soul after death, into another substance or

body than that which it occupied before. The belief in such a transition

was common to the most civilized, and the most uncivilized, nations of

the earth.[42:1]



It was believed in, and taught by, the Brahminical Hindoos,[42:2] the

Buddhists,[42:3] the natives of Egypt,[42:4] several philosophers of

ancient Greece,[43:1] the ancient Druids,[43:2] the natives of

Madagascar,[43:3] several tribes of Africa,[43:4] and North

America,[43:5] the ancient Mexicans,[43:4] and by some Jewish and

Christian sects.[43:5]



"It deserves notice, that in both of these religions (i. e.,

Jewish and Christian), it found adherents as well in

ancient as in modern times. Among the Jews, the doctrine of

transmigration--the Gilgul Neshamoth--was taught in the

mystical system of the Kabbala."[43:6]



"All the souls," the spiritual code of this system says, "are

subject to the trials of transmigration; and men do not know

which are the ways of the Most High in their regard." "The

principle, in short, of the Kabbala, is the same as that of

Brahmanism."



"On the ground of this doctrine, which was shared in by Rabbis

of the highest renown, it was held, for instance, that the

soul of Adam migrated into David, and will come in the

Messiah; that the soul of Japhet is the same as that of

Simeon, and the soul of Terah, migrated into Job."



"Of all these transmigrations, biblical instances are adduced

according to their mode of interpretation--in the writings of

Rabbi Manasse ben Israel, Rabbi Naphtali, Rabbi Meyer ben

Gabbai, Rabbi Ruben, in the Jalkut Khadash, and other works of

a similar character."[43:4]



The doctrine is thus described by Ovid, in the language of Dryden:



"What feels the body when the soul expires,

By time corrupted, or consumed by fires?

Nor dies the spirit, but new life repeats

Into other forms, and only changes seats.

Ev'n I, who these mysterious truths declare,

Was once Euphorbus in the Trojan war;

My name and lineage I remember well,

And how in fight by Spartan's King I fell.

In Argive Juno's fame I late beheld

My buckler hung on high, and own'd my former shield

Then death, so called, is but old matter dressed

In some new figure, and a varied vest.

Thus all things are but alter'd, nothing dies,

And here and there the unbodied spirit flies."



The Jews undoubtedly learned this doctrine after they had been subdued

by, and become acquainted with other nations; and the writer of this

story, whoever he may have been, was evidently endeavoring to strengthen

the belief in this doctrine--he being an advocate of it--by inventing

this story, and making Jacob a witness to the truth of it. Jacob would

have been looked upon at the time the story was written (i. e., after

the Babylonian captivity), as of great authority. We know that several

writers of portions of the Old Testament have written for similar

purposes. As an illustration, we may mention the book of Esther. This

book was written for the purpose of explaining the origin of the

festival of Purim, and to encourage the Israelites to adopt it. The

writer, who was an advocate of the feast, lived long after the

Babylonish captivity, and is quite unknown.[44:1]



The writer of the seventeenth chapter of Matthew has made Jesus a

teacher of the doctrine of Transmigration.



The Lord had promised that he would send Elijah (Elias) the prophet,

"before the coming of the great and dreadful day of the Lord,"[44:2] and

Jesus is made to say that he had already come, or, that his soul had

transmigrated unto the body of John the Baptist, and they knew it

not.[44:3]



And in Mark (viii. 27) we are told that Jesus asked his disciples,

saying unto them; "Whom do men say that I am?" whereupon they answer:

"Some say Elias; and others, one of the prophets;" or, in other words,

that the soul of Elias, or one of the prophets, had transmigrated into

the body of Jesus. In John (ix. 1, 2), we are told that Jesus and his

disciples seeing a man "which was blind from his birth," the disciples

asked him, saying; "Master, who did sin, this man (in some former

state) or his parents." Being born blind, how else could he sin,

unless in some former state? These passages result from the fact,

which we have already noticed, that some of the Jewish and Christian

sects believed in the doctrine of Metempsychosis.



According to some Jewish authors, Adam was re-produced in Noah,

Elijah, and other Bible celebrities.[44:4]



The Rev. Mr. Faber says:



"Adam, and Enoch, and Noah, might in outward appearance be

different men, but they were really the self-same divine

persons who had been promised as the seed of the woman,

successively animating various human bodies."[44:5]



We have stated as our belief that the vision which the writer of the

twenty-eighth chapter of Genesis has made Jacob to witness, was intended

to strengthen the belief in the doctrine of the Metempsychosis, that he

was simply seeing the souls of men ascending and descending from heaven

on a ladder, during their transmigrations.



We will now give our reasons for thinking so.



The learned Thomas Maurice tells us that:



The Indians had, in remote ages, in their system of theology, the

sidereal ladder of seven gates, which described, in a symbolical

manner, the ascending and descending of the souls of men.[45:1]



We are also informed by Origen that:



This descent (i. e., the descent of souls from heaven to

enter into some body), was described in a symbolical manner,

by a ladder which was represented as reaching from heaven to

earth, and divided into seven stages, at each of which was

figured a gate; the eighth gate was at the top of the ladder,

which belonged to the sphere of the celestial firmament.[45:2]



That souls dwell in the Galaxy was a thought familiar to the

Pythagoreans, who gave it on their master's word, that the souls that

crowd there, descend and appear to men as dreams.[45:3]



The fancy of the Manicheans also transferred pure souls to this column

of light, whence they could come down to earth and again return.[45:4]



Paintings representing a scene of this kind may be seen in works of art

illustrative of Indian Mythology.



Maurice speaks of one, in which he says:



"The souls of men are represented as ascending and descending

(on a ladder), according to the received opinion of the

sidereal Metempsychosis in Asia."[45:5]



Mons. Dupuis tells us that:



"Among the mysterious pictures of the Initiation, in the

cave of the Persian God Mithras, there was exposed to the view

the descent of the souls to the earth, and their return to

heaven, through the seven planetary spheres."[45:6]



And Count de Volney says:



"In the cave of Mithra was a ladder with seven steps,

representing the seven spheres of the planets by means of

which souls ascended and descended. This is precisely the

ladder of Jacob's vision. There is in the Royal Library (of

France) a superb volume of pictures of the Indian gods, in

which the ladder is represented with the souls of men

ascending it."[45:7]



In several of the Egyptian sculptures also, the Transmigration of Souls

is represented by the ascending and descending of souls from heaven to

earth, on a flight of steps, and, as the souls of wicked men were

supposed to enter pigs and other animals, therefore pigs, monkeys, &c.,

are to be seen on the steps, descending from heaven.[45:8]



"And he dreamed, and behold a ladder set up on the earth, and

the top of it reached to heaven; and behold the angels of God

ascending and descending on it."



These are the words of the sacred text. Can anything be more

convincing? It continues thus:



"And Jacob awoke out of his sleep . . . and he was afraid, and

said . . . this is none other but the house of God, and this

is the gate of heaven."



Here we have "the gate of heaven," mentioned by Origen in describing the

Metempsychosis.



According to the ancients, the top of this ladder was supposed to

reach the throne of the most high God. This corresponds exactly with

the vision of Jacob. The ladder which he is made to see reached unto

heaven, and the Lord stood above it.[46:1]



"And Jacob rose up early in the morning, and took the stone

that he had put for his pillow, and set it up for a pillar,

and poured oil upon the top of it."[46:2]



This concluding portion to the story has evidently an allusion to

Phallic[46:3] worship. There is scarcely a nation of antiquity which

did not set up these stones (as emblems of the reproductive power of

nature) and worship them. Dr. Oort, speaking of this, says:



Few forms of worship were so universal in ancient times as the homage

paid to sacred stones. In the history of the religion of even the most

civilized peoples, such as the Greeks, Romans, Hindoos, Arabs and

Germans, we find traces of this form of worship.[46:4] The ancient

Druids of Britain also worshiped sacred stones, which were set up on

end.[46:5]



Pausanias, an eminent Greek historian, says:



"The Hermiac statue, which they venerate in Cyllene above

other symbols, is an erect Phallus on a pedestal."[46:6]



This was nothing more than a smooth, oblong stone, set erect on a flat

one.[46:7]



The learned Dr. Ginsburg, in his "Life of Levita," alludes to the

ancient mode of worship offered to the heathen deity Hermes, or Mercury.

A "Hermes" (i. e., a stone) was frequently set up on the road-side,

and each traveller, as he passed by, paid his homage to the deity by

either throwing a stone on the heap (which was thus collected), or by

anointing it. This "Hermes" was the symbol of Phallus.[46:8]



Now, when we find that this form of worship was very prevalent among

the Israelites,[47:1] that these sacred stones which were "set up,"

were called (by the heathen), BAETY-LI,[47:2] (which is not unlike

BETH-EL), and that they were anointed with oil,[47:3] I think we have

reasons for believing that the story of Jacob's setting up a stone,

pouring oil upon it, and calling the place Beth-el, "has evidently

an allusion to Phallic worship."[47:4]



The male and female powers of nature were denoted respectively by an

upright and an oval emblem, and the conjunction of the two furnished at

once the altar and the Ashera, or grove, against which the Hebrew

prophets lifted up their voices in earnest protest. In the kingdoms,

both of Judah and Israel, the rites connected with these emblems assumed

their most corrupting form. Even in the temple itself, stood the

Ashera, or the upright emblem, on the circular altar of Baal-Peor, the

Priapos of the Jews, thus reproducing the Linga, and Yoni of the

Hindu.[47:5] For this symbol, the women wove hangings, as the Athenian

maidens embroidered the sacred peplos for the ship presented to Athene,

at the great Dionysiac festival. This Ashera, which, in the authorized

English version of the Old Testament is translated "grove," was, in

fact, a pole, or stem of a tree. It is reproduced in our modern

"Maypole," around which maidens dance, as maidens did of yore.[47:6]





FOOTNOTES:



[42:1] See Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Transmigration."



[42:2] Chambers's Encyclo., art. "Transmigration." Prichard's Mythology,

p. 213, and Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 59.



[42:3] Ibid. Ernest de Bunsen says: "The first traces of the doctrine of

Transmigration of souls is to be found among the Brahmins and

Buddhists." (The Angel Messiah, pp. 63, 64.)



[42:4] Prichard's Mythology, pp. 213, 214.



[43:1] Gross: The Heathen Religion. Also Chambers's Encyclo., art.

"Transmigration."



[43:2] Ibid. Mallet's Northern Antiquities, p. 13; and Myths of the

British Druids, p. 15.



[43:3] Chambers's Encyclo.



[43:4] Ibid.



[43:5] Ibid. See also Bunsen: The Angel-Messiah, pp. 63, 64. Dupuis, p.

357. Josephus: Jewish Antiquities, book xviii. ch. 13. Dunlap: Son of

the Man, p. 94; and Beal: Hist. Buddha.



[43:6] Chambers, art. "Transmigration."



[44:1] See The Religion of Israel, p. 18.



[44:2] Malachi iv. 5.



[44:3] Matthew xvii. 12, 13.



[44:4] See Bonwick: Egyptian Belief, p. 78.



[44:5] Faber: Orig. Pagan Idol, vol. iii. p. 612; in Anacalypsis, vol.

i. p. 210.



[45:1] Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 202.



[45:2] Contra Celsus, lib. vi. c. xxii.



[45:3] Tylor: Primitive Culture, vol. i. p. 324.



[45:4] Ibid.



[45:5] Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 262.



[45:6] Dupuis: Origin of Religious Beliefs, p. 344.



[45:7] Volney's Ruins, p. 147, note.



[45:8] See Child's Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. pp. 160, 162.



[46:1] Genesis xxviii. 12, 13.



[46:2] Genesis xxviii. 18, 19.



[46:3] "Phallic," from "Phallus," a representation of the male

generative organs. For further information on this subject, see the

works of R. Payne Knight, and Dr. Thomas Inman.



[46:4] Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 175, 276. See, also, Knight:

Ancient Art and Mythology; and Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. and ii.



[46:5] See Myths of the British Druids, p. 300; and Higgins: Celtic

Druids.



[46:6] Quoted by R. Payne Knight: Ancient Art and Mythology, p. 114,

note.






[46:8] See Inman: Ancient Faiths, vol. i. pp. 543, 544.



[47:1] Bible for Learners, vol. i. pp. 177, 178, 317, 321, 322.



[47:2] Indian Antiquities, vol. ii. p. 356.



[47:3] Ibid.



[47:4] We read in Bell's "Pantheon of the Gods and Demi-Gods of

Antiquity," under the head of BAELYLION, BAELYLIA or BAETYLOS, that they

are "Anointed Stones, worshiped among the Greeks, Phrygians, and other

nations of the East;" that "these Baetylia were greatly venerated by the

ancient Heathen, many of their idols being no other;" and that, "in

reality no sort of idol was more common in the East, than that of oblong

stones erected, and hence termed by the Greeks pillars." The Rev.

Geo. W. Cox, in his Aryan Mythology (vol. ii. p. 113), says: "The

erection of these stone columns or pillars, the forms of which in most

cases tell their own story, are common throughout the East, some of the

most elaborate being found near Ghizni." And Mr. Wake (Phallism in

Ancient Religions, p. 60), says: "Kiyun, or Kivan, the name of the deity

said by Amos (v. 26), to have been worshiped in the wilderness by the

Hebrews, signifies GOD OF THE PILLAR."



[47:5] We find that there was nothing gross or immoral in the worship of

the male and female generative organs among the ancients, when the

subject is properly understood. Being the most intimately connected with

the reproduction of life on earth, the Linga became the symbol under

which the Sun, invoked with a thousand names, has been worshiped

throughout the world as the restorer of the powers of nature after the

long sleep or death of winter. But if the Linga is the Sun-god in his

majesty, the Yoni is the earth who yields her fruit under his

fertilizing warmth.



The Phallic tree is introduced into the narrative of the book of

Genesis: but it is here called a tree, not of life, but of the knowledge

of good and evil, that knowledge which dawns in the mind with the first

consciousness of difference between man and woman. In contrast with this

tree of carnal indulgence, tending to death, is the tree of life,

denoting the higher existence for which man was designed, and which

would bring with it the happiness and the freedom of the children of

God. In the brazen serpent of the Pentateuch, the two emblems of the

cross and serpent, the quiescent and energising Phallos, are united.

(See Cox: Aryan Mythology, vol. ii. pp. 113, 116, 118.)



[47:6] See Cox: Aryan Mytho., ii. 112, 113.





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