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The Trial Of Abraham's Faith





The story of the trial of Abraham's faith--when he is ordered by the
Lord to sacrifice his only son Isaac--is to be found in Genesis xxii.
1-19, and is as follows:

"And it came to pass . . . that God did tempt Abraham, and
said unto him: 'Abraham,' and he said: 'Behold, here I am.'
And he (God) said: 'Take now thy son, thine only son, Isaac,
whom thou lovest, and get thee into the land of Moriah, and
offer him there for a burnt offering upon one of the mountains
which I will tell thee of.'

"And Abraham rose up early in the morning, and saddled his
ass, and took two of his young men with him, and Isaac his
son, and clave the wood for the burnt offering, and rose up
and went into the place which God had told him. . . . (When
Abraham was near the appointed place) he said unto his young
men: 'Abide ye here with the ass, and I and the lad will go
yonder and worship, and come again to thee. And Abraham took
the wood for the burnt offering, and laid it upon (the
shoulders of) Isaac his son, and he took the fire in his hand,
and a knife, and they went both of them together. And Isaac
spake unto Abraham his father, and said: 'Behold the fire and
the wood, but where is the lamb for the burnt offering?' And
Abraham said: 'My son, God will provide himself a lamb for a
burnt offering.' So they went both of them together, and they
came to the place which God had told him of. And Abraham built
an altar there, and laid the wood in order, and bound Isaac
his son, and laid him on the altar upon the wood. And Abraham
stretched forth his hand, and took the knife to slay his son.
And the angel of the Lord called unto him out of heaven, and
said: 'Abraham! Abraham! lay not thine hand upon the lad,
neither do thou anything unto him, for now I know that thou
fearest God, seeing that thou hast not withheld thy son, thine
only son from me.'

"And Abraham lifted up his eyes, and looked, and behold behind
him a ram caught in a thicket by his horns, and Abraham went
and took the ram, and offered him up for a burnt offering in
the stead of his son. . . . And the angel of the Lord called unto
Abraham, out of heaven, the second time, and said: 'By myself
have I sworn saith the Lord, for because thou hast done this
thing, and hast not withheld thy son, thine only son, . . . I
will bless thee, and . . . I will multiply thy seed as the
stars in the heaven, and as the sand which is upon the sea
shore, and thy seed shall possess the gate of his enemies. And
in thy seed shall all the nations of the earth be blest,
because thou hast obeyed my voice.' So Abraham returned unto
his young men, and they rose up and went together to
Beer-sheba, and Abraham dwelt at Beer-sheba."

There is a Hindoo story related to the Sankhayana-sutras, which, in
substance, is as follows: King Hariscandra had no son; he then prayed to
Varuna, promising, that if a son were born to him, he would sacrifice
the child to the god. Then a son was born to him, called Rohita. When
Rohita was grown up his father one day told him of the vow he had made
to Varuna, and bade him prepare to be sacrificed. The son objected to
being killed and ran away from his father's house. For six years he
wandered in the forest, and at last met a starving Brahman. Him he
persuaded to sell one of his sons named Sunahsepha, for a hundred cows.
This boy was bought by Rohita and taken to Hariscandra and about to be
sacrificed to Varuna as a substitute for Rohita, when, on praying to the
gods with verses from the Veda, he was released by them.[39:1]

There was an ancient Phenician story, written by Sanchoniathon, who
wrote about 1300 years before our era, which is as follows:

"Saturn, whom the Phoenicians call Israel, had by a nymph of
the country a male child whom he named Jeoud, that is, one
and only. On the breaking out of a war, which brought the
country into imminent danger, Saturn erected an altar, brought
to it his son, clothed in royal garments, and sacrificed
him."[39:2]

There is also a Grecian fable to the effect that one Agamemnon had a
daughter whom he dearly loved, and she was deserving of his affection.
He was commanded by God, through the Delphic Oracle, to offer her up as
a sacrifice. Her father long resisted the demand, but finally
succumbed. Before the fatal blow had been struck, however, the goddess
Artemis or Ashtoreth interfered, and carried the maiden away, whilst in
her place was substituted a stag.[39:3]

Another similar Grecian fable relates that:

"When the Greek army was detained at Aulis, by contrary winds,
the augurs being consulted, declared that one of the kings had
offended Diana, and she demanded the sacrifice of his daughter
Iphigenia. It was like taking the father's life-blood, but he
was persuaded that it was his duty to submit for the good of
his country. The maiden was brought forth for sacrifice, in
spite of her tears and supplications; but just as the priest
was about to strike the fatal blow, Iphigenia suddenly
disappeared, and a goat of uncommon beauty stood in her
place."[39:4]

There is yet still another, which belongs to the same country, and is
related thus:

"In Sparta, it being declared upon one occasion that the
gods demanded a human victim, the choice was made by lot, and
fell on a damsel named Helena. But when all was in readiness,
an eagle descended, carried away the priest's knife, and laid
it on the head of a heifer, which was sacrificed in her
stead."[40:1]

The story of Abraham and Isaac was written at a time when the Mosaic
party in Israel was endeavoring to abolish idolatry among their people.
They were offering up human sacrifices to their gods Moloch, Baal, and
Chemosh, and the priestly author of this story was trying to make the
people think that the Lord had abolished such offerings, as far back as
the time of Abraham. The Grecian legends, which he had evidently heard,
may have given him the idea.[40:2]

Human offerings to the gods were at one time almost universal. In the
earliest ages the offerings were simple, and such as shepherds and
rustics could present. They loaded the altars of the gods with the first
fruits of their crops, and the choicest products of the earth.
Afterwards they sacrificed animals. When they had once laid it down as a
principle that the effusion of the blood of these animals appeased the
anger of the gods, and that their justice turned aside upon the victims
those strokes which were destined for men, their great care was for
nothing more than to conciliate their favor by so easy a method. It is
the nature of violent desires and excessive fear to know no bounds, and
therefore, when they would ask for any favor which they ardently wished
for, or would deprecate some public calamity which they feared, the
blood of animals was not deemed a price sufficient, but they began to
shed that of men. It is probable, as we have said, that this barbarous
practice was formerly almost universal, and that it is of very remote
antiquity. In time of war the captives were chosen for this purpose, but
in time of peace they took the slaves. The choice was partly regulated
by the opinion of the bystanders, and partly by lot. But they did not
always sacrifice such mean persons. In great calamities, in a pressing
famine, for example, if the people thought they had some pretext to
impute the cause of it to their king, they even sacrificed him without
hesitation, as the highest price with which they could purchase the
Divine favor. In this manner, the first King of Vermaland (a province of
Sweden) was burnt in honor of Odin, the Supreme God, to put an end to a
great dearth; as we read in the history of Norway. The kings, in their
turn, did not spare the blood of their subjects; and many of them even
shed that of their children. Earl Hakon, of Norway, offered his son in
sacrifice, to obtain of Odin the victory over the Jomsburg pirates. Aun,
King of Sweden, devoted to Odin the blood of his nine sons, to prevail
on that god to prolong his life. Some of the kings of Israel offered up
their first-born sons as a sacrifice to the god Baal or Moloch.

The altar of Moloch reeked with blood. Children were sacrificed and
burned in the fire to him, while trumpets and flutes drowned their
screams, and the mothers looked on, and were bound to restrain their
tears.

The Phenicians offered to the gods, in times of war and drought, the
fairest of their children. The books of Sanchoniathon and Byblian Philo
are full of accounts of such sacrifices. In Byblos boys were immolated
to Adonis; and, on the founding of a city or colony, a sacrifice of a
vast number of children was solemnized, in the hopes of thereby averting
misfortune from the new settlement. The Phenicians, according to
Eusebius, yearly sacrificed their dearest, and even their only children,
to Saturn. The bones of the victims were preserved in the temple of
Moloch, in a golden ark, which was carried by the Phenicians with them
to war.[41:1] Like the Fijians of the present day, those people
considered their gods as beings like themselves. They loved and they
hated; they were proud and revengeful; they were, in fact, savages like
themselves.

If the eldest born of the family of Athamas entered the temple of the
Laphystian Jupiter, at Alos, in Achaia, he was sacrificed, crowned with
garlands, like an animal victim.[41:2]

The offering of human sacrifices to the Sun was extensively practiced in
Mexico and Peru, before the establishment of Christianity.[41:3]


FOOTNOTES:

[39:1] See Mueller's Hist. Sanscrit Literature; and Williams' Indian
Wisdom, p. 29.

[39:2] Quoted by Count de Volney; New Researches in Anc't Hist., p. 144.

[39:3] See Inman's Ancient Faiths, vol. ii. p. 104.

[39:4] Prog. Relig. Ideas, vol. i. p. 302.

[40:1] Ibid.

[40:2] See chapter xi.

[41:1] Baring-Gould: Orig. Relig. Belief, vol. i. p. 368.

[41:2] Kenrick's Egypt, vol. i. p. 448.

[41:3] See Acosta: Hist. Indies, vol. ii.





Next: Jacob's Vision Of The Ladder

Previous: The Tower Of Babel



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